This was copied off the Beechcraft Societies site. Many have e-mailed me asking to clarify, as they could not access the site being non-members. The rules are pretty clear, flight reviews can not be legally given unless the plane is equipt with dual controls. This will carry over to RV's that don't have dual controls also, with more emphasis on tandem aircraft which don't leave much room for interpretation of whether the controls can be reached by the second pilot. Also, this explains that there is a difference between the intent of the FAR's on "examiners" and "CFI's", and what they can and can't do legally. Hope this clears up some of the confussion. Bottom line is Flight training, other than instrument, as well as Flight reviews are not legal in throw over yoke aircraft or RV's not equipt with dual controls. Practical tests "may" be given if the "examiner" agrees to it.
Instruction in Single Control Airplanes
Flight Instruction in Single-Control Beechcraft
ABS frequently gets questions about the legality of flight instruction in airplanes with a single control yoke. Here’s the applicable Federal Air Regulation, with emphasis added:
§ 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft…that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has fully functioning dual controls. However, instrument flight instruction may be given in a single-engine airplane equipped with a single, functioning throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when—
(1) The instructor has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and
(2) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.
FAA interpretation, enforcement action and some insurance claims history consistently rule that a Flight Review as required in 61.56 consists of “flight instruction,” and therefore dual flight controls must be installed. There is no room for interpretation requiring dual controls for any other instruction not specifically limited to “instrument” instruction, for example, instruction toward currency requirements, high-performance and/or complex endorsements, pilot certificates or ratings, and insurance-mandated checkout instruction (for purposes of meeting insurance underwriters’ policy stipulations).
Confirming this interpretation, the FAA provides for exemptions to FAR 91.109(a) permitting flight instruction in single-control airplanes under certain circumstances. Exemptions require both pilot and instructor be qualified to act as pilot-in-command, precluding some types of training, including initial checkouts if the pilot receiving instruction does not already have his/her Complex and High Performance endorsements.
ABS’ training partner BPPP, Inc. holds an exemption that allows instruction in single-control single and multiengine Beechcraft, but only when such training is done in a regularly scheduled BPPP event (see www.bppp.org
). BPPP's exemption is also subject to the requirement that both student and instructor be qualified to act as PIC.
A few individual instructors have successfully petitioned the FAA for single-control exemptions valid for instruction in single-control airplanes outside of BPPP events. Instructors wishing a single-control exemption must apply to the FAA at this address:
Petition for Exemption
Rules Docket (AGC-10)
Federal Aviation Administration
800 Independence Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20591
There is a sample exemption application published in the Federal Register.
Success in obtaining an exemption seems to hinge on the instructor’s experience in Beech aircraft and his/her personal relationship with their local FSDO. In some cases these exemptions are valid in multiengine airplanes, in others it is restricted to single-engine aircraft.
Instructors Holding Exemptions, and How to Find Them
CFIs holding exemptions to conduct single-yoke training are encouraged to post contact information in the Flight Instructors conference area on the Hangar Flying bulletin board, in the Members Only section of www.bonanza.org
. Be certain to indicate you have an exemption to provide single-yoke instruction, whether it permits instruction in single- and/or multiengine Beechcraft, and the expiration date of your current exemption.
Pilots seeking instruction: Please read the "Important: About This Flight Instructor List" before choosing a flight instructor who has posted his or her information in Hangar Flying.
FAA Practical Tests (checkrides) in Single-Control Airplanes (not to include instruction or Flight Reviews)
FAR 61.45(e) gives individual pilot examiners authority to decide whether they wish to conduct practical tests in single-control airplanes, under these conditions:
(e) Aircraft with single controls. A practical test may be conducted in an aircraft having a single set of controls, provided the:
(1) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;
(2) Test does not involve a demonstration of instrument skills; and
(3) Proficiency of the applicant can be observed by an examiner who is in a position to observe the applicant.
Ironically, FAR 91.109(a) permits instrument flight instruction in single-control airplanes, but FAR 61.45(e) prohibits an instrument pilot checkride in that same airplane. ABS is attempting to get a clarification from the FAA concerning this contradiction.
Several facilities provide dual yoke rental services. A rental yoke may be shipped to an aircraft owner and quickly installed by a certificated mechanic (a mechanic’s logbook endorsement is required). BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL to check all control movement, trim operation and the proper function of push-to-talk, autopilot disconnect and any other yoke-mounted switches after installing a dual yoke and again when re-installing the single yoke.
Although there may be others, ABS knows of the following dual control rental sources. Contact each for price and availability.
Dave Monte 775-792-5282
Lawson Barber 559-675-0183